Ultra simple DHCP and caching DNS on RHEL6

I had to configure DHCP and DNS caching server on a small LAN today, but I needed to change several A DNS entries for specific services that has different IP addresses externally and internally.

It turns out it is not possible to do this easily with BIND. The only way to do this is to create zone with all the setting and zone transfer. It looks like overkill to me.

When I was googling this, I stumbled upon dnsmasq.

It is a trivial DHCP/DNS/BOOTP/TFTP/PXE server with several nice features and one of these is ability to change DNS records. Since it is ideal for my case, I have decided to shut down dhcpd and named and use it. It turned out it was a great decision.

Installation is super easy, it’s part of RHEL 6 base channels.

yum -y install dnsmasq

It’s a very small package.

# rpm -ql dnsmasq
/etc/dbus-1/system.d/dnsmasq.conf
/etc/dnsmasq.conf
/etc/dnsmasq.d
/etc/rc.d/init.d/dnsmasq
/usr/sbin/dnsmasq
/usr/share/doc/dnsmasq-2.48
...
/usr/share/man/man8/dnsmasq.8.gz
/var/lib/dnsmasq

That does not mean it has little features. In fact, it has this nice set of killer features and I really love how all the services it provides are integrated. For example one can easily bind DHCP client names and DNS records, integration between DHCP and booting protocols is also very nice.

To see all of the features read the /etc/dnsmasq.conf file. All lines are commented, but fully documented. You don’t even need to turn on anything, dnsmasq provides sane defaults. To get basic behavior, just start it:

service dnsmasq start
chkconfig dnsmasq on

It will read your /etc/resolv.conf to retrieve nameservers, it will determine your network and start serving as DNS caching daemon and DHCP service for that network. Please note it listens on all interfaces by default.

In my case, I only uncommented few options:

# grep -v '^#' /etc/dnsmasq.conf | sed '/^$/d'
address=/some.server.net/10.0.0.100

Yeah, I need to return different IP addresses for few DNS queries. In this case, I want some.server.net to be resolved as 10.0.0.100. Dnsmasq is also able to read /etc/hosts if you want that, but you need to explicitly enable this.

expand-hosts
domain=lan

I want to all the DHCP clients to have “lan” extension, therefore computer that is named “alpha” is added as “alpha.lan” in DNS. By default they are added without any extension I guess.

dhcp-host=jirka,10.0.0.30,infinite

I want machine which says it’s named “jirka” to have this address for infinite time. Dnsmasq is very powerful in this, you can create various rules using dhcp-host and it is also able to read /etc/hosts to read static IP definitions from there.

dhcp-range=10.0.0.20,10.0.0.99,999h

This is my DHCP range, I like long lease times in this network.

dhcp-option=42,0.0.0.0

And I have ntpd daemon that is opened for LAN requests, therefore I am giving this (maybe odd) option so clients can synchronize time against the server itself.

Okay, today I found this little-big-daemon is super useful. For small LANs with few computers, it’s a swiss knife for every single administrator.

16 September 2012 | linux | fedora
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